Having spent over a decade in the publishing industry, I’ve seen how the transition to digital communication and systems has brought incremental changes to the age-old processes of developing educational books. My recent experiments with ChatGPT and other AI tools have led me to believe that these technologies could be a catalyst of change for publishers. I’ve tried my best to craft the perfect prompt (a written instruction to ChatGPT) to generate lesson plans, summaries, multiple-choice questions, blurbs, marketing copy, and educational content. In doing so, I’ve seen that these AI models have the potential to significantly enhance product development pipelines, thus enabling even smaller, digitally-adept teams to create textbooks and other educational materials that rival the offerings of industry leaders.
Understanding Generative AI
But first, what exactly is generative AI? These systems use large language models, trained on vast amounts of data, to generate text by predicting the likelihood of the next word given a specific context. They are sophisticated prediction machines. Responses are generated using prompts. These detailed instructions combine context, examples, data, and restrictions. With advanced language capabilities, these large language models (examples include ChatGPT, GPT-4, Claude and Bing) can impact how educational content, such as textbooks, are written and revised by assisting authors, editors, and proofreaders in automating tasks, structuring content and refining text. By automating various tasks and generating highly-customisable material, publishers can streamline their workflows and explore new business opportunities. It’s exciting times ahead for publishers willing to disrupt themselves!
The rapid rise of generative AI in the workplace also means new skills are required. Organisations must prioritise a continuous learning culture and focus on skilling employees in digital literacy, AI and data analytics. Publishers need to upskill staff to understand how to use data-driven approaches to educational content development while adapting workflows to take advantage of the efficiencies offered by generative AI. I’ve set up a personal learning pathway for myself in these areas, which I will be cascading down to my team.
There will likely be a growing need for experts who can work with AI systems to develop and curate content. This may lead to new job roles, such as AI managers and AI strategists tasked with adapting models to inhouse workflows, to ensure optimal interaction between human expertise and AI-generated materials. There is also a shift towards roles requiring critical thinking, creativity, and decision-making.
Applications in Educational Publishing
Generative AI has the potential to revolutionise the way content is produced in the textbook publishing industry. Using advanced algorithms and a vast knowledge base, these AI systems can generate content on various subjects, helping authors further develop their ideas and fill gaps in their manuscripts. AI models can be particularly beneficial in the initial stages of content creation, where they provide helpful suggestions and insights. These models become really interesting when publishers provide their datasets, such as specific curriculum knowledge, and a prompt to generate content following a particular tone or voice. Additionally, AI has the potential to generate diagrams, charts, videos, and interactive content, an area for further exploration.
However, it is worth noting that prediction models cannot be considered factually accurate at all times. This undermines the primary goal of a textbook: to provide accurate, reliable, and educational content. Ensuring that generated content is factually correct requires rigorous proofreading and editing by human experts to maintain the quality and integrity of the information presented.
Textbook authors often strive for consistency in style and structure to enhance readability and comprehension. Language level, particularly in textbook publishing, is also significant. Generative AI tools can assist in language editing, ensuring the content adheres to the desired tone and formatting. These systems can provide suggestions on language use and guidance on how to adapt language level as needed. They can also be used to analyse the overall structure of a textbook, identifying areas that need improvement and offering recommendations for restructuring or rephrasing information.
Condensing complex ideas into concise summaries can be challenging for authors. Generative AI, with its ability to quickly parse vast amounts of data, can create clear and informative summaries that adhere to the overarching theme of the content. This can be particularly beneficial when preparing abstracts or chapter summaries to address critical concepts within a textbook. These AI-generated summaries can serve as starting points for in-depth discussions in a classroom and make the content more accessible to learners.
Integrating these models into existing systems allows tasks such as formatting and content coverage checks to be automated, freeing the publisher and editor to focus on content quality and pedagogic innovation. These tools also allow for data-driven decision-making where predictive analytics can be used for forecasting demand, and insights into market trends and consumer preferences can be made. This type of research is key for planning new projects.
While generative AI has already shown great potential in the publishing industry, it is essential to remember that it is a tool designed to assist authors and editors in their work. Human intelligence, creativity, and expertise remain crucial in creating high-quality, reliable textbooks. By collaborating with AI, publishers can make the content development process more efficient and ultimately improve the learning experience for learners.
A publisher’s business is intellectual property, and it is here where issues around authorship, copyright and AI systems still need to be resolved. Key concerns include determining who should be credited as the author of AI-generated content and the extent to which AI-generated content can be considered original. The U.S. Copyright Office has stated that AI-generated material is not the product of human authorship and, therefore, not copyrightable. However, if human involvement is significant in guiding the AI, AI-assisted works may be eligible for copyright. Other countries are also working on providing guidance on AI and intellectual property.
Another potential issue regarding generative AI in textbook publishing is copyright infringement. If AI-generated content draws from copyrighted sources, there may be instances where it infringes upon the rights of the original copyright holders. Until a clear legal framework is established, textbook publishers and content creators must remain vigilant to avoid copyright infringement in AI-generated works.
As someone who has been immersed in the publishing sector for over a decade, I’m impressed by the potential transformative impact of AI on processes and workflows. However, it’s important to recognise that the effective incorporation of AI tools requires a workforce adept at harnessing these technologies’ full potential. This underscores the need for publishers to invest in upskilling their teams, fostering a culture of continuous learning and adapting to the demands of an AI-augmented landscape. Generative AI is not a panacea but rather a powerful tool. It should be used to augment human creativity and expertise, which remain at the core of quality educational content.